Cheyletiella Mites in Dogs

cheyletiella-in-dogs Here we are talking about a commonly found skin condition in dogs, rabbits as well as cats named as Cheyletiella Mite which is considered to be a highly contagious skin disease. Some people call it by the name of walking dandruff and it is generally observed to occur due to tiny whitish mites that usually crawl over the skin of your dog.

Cheyletiella mites were first observed in year 1878 and till now it has been found in so many pets throughout the world. The general cases were reported in cats, dogs, badgers, fox and slowly it started affecting human beings also; it probably exists in many other wild animals too. These mites usually lead to moderate irritation but observations say that this infestation can go to very higher level in case of young animals. If your dog has an immature immune system then he will suffer more trouble with Cheyletiella mites.

Here are few types and symptoms associated with Cheyletiella Mite:

  • Generally a small skin mite can be found on the skin of your dog if you observe him closely.
  • When a dog is infected with walking dandruff there is some amount of skin irritation.
  • Sometimes lesions are found on back.
  • The mite is often confused for dandruff or skin flakes on hair surface.
  • Dogs affected with Cheyletiella Mite usually face visible skin scaling issues.
  • Excessive scratching can be present in affected dogs.

Causes of Cheyletiella Mite:

Some of the general causes behind development of all above symptoms is exposure and contact with other animals in the dog’s surroundings.  Exposure to other dog in a grooming center, doggy day care of dog boarding facility as improper animal shelters can also cause Cheyletiella mite issues.

Diagnosis or treatment:

If any of the above symptoms is present in your pet then you need to see your vet as soon as possible because your dog may need expert care with proper treatment. In order to judge the symptoms of this disease, veterinarians generally take samples from the skin of dog as well as some analysis is done on his hair. In some cases where mites are not visible with naked eyes, they will prefer to use magnifying lenses to ensure their presence.

The treatment is very straightforward. The dog’s long hair is clipped and several medicated baths are given once a week. Because walking dandruff in dogs can be transmitted to humans, it’s important to disinfect the dog’s bedding and ensure good hand washing. Once your veterinarian is able to identify the problem then he will take very less time to make your dog healthy again.

Photo Credits:

Cheyletiella sp. (probably C. yasguri, since it came off a dog) by JoelmillsOwn work, CCBY3.0

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Dog Demodex

 

Demodex  is the reason behind the inflammatory parasitic disease which can be commonly seen in the canine family. The demodectic mange aka demodicosis takes place due to the infestation of the microscopic mites. The mites are known to get themselves burrowed deep into hair follicles and skin pores of their host. They are host specific and can affect cats, dogs, sheep, goats etc. They feed on the cellular debris that lies in the hair follicles of their host. It has been observed that during the nursing stage the mites get transmitted to the off spring from the dam. Generally animals less than 12 months are afflicted by this disease. The demodicosis is commonly found in the short haired pedigree breeds, for example; German shepherd, Staffordshire bull terrier, Dalmatians, Collies etc.

Signs

Animals suffering from demodicosis are easily identified from their sudden hair loss at an alarming rate. Crusting followed by grey hyper-pigmentation with plugged follicles are the typical signs found on puppies and dogs. There are two types of affliction, localized and generalized.

Localized demodicosis (3 to 6 months): In such cases the mites are known to proliferate in a few confined areas. This eventually results in scaly hairless patches, mainly in the facial area of the dog. Localized demodicosis is a common infliction mostly affecting the puppies and more than half of the cases are solved without any serious medication.

Generalized demodicosis (6 to 12 months) : In contrast to the previous case, such mange affects large areas of a canine. It can cover a full body of a dog and make the suffering more painful. It is a known fact that a bacterial disease of such magnitude can make things more itchy and smelly at the same time. It is to be noted that such infliction can also be a sign of poor immunity, endocrine problem etc.

Diagnosis

To confirm whether the dog is actually suffering from demodicosis, one should take it for a clinical test. Skin scraping is the only real clinical test possible to determine this disease. It is the only tool available to a vet for identifying the problem. However it is sometimes misleading, since they just might miss the trouble makers who inhabit the deep pores or hair follicles of the host. So the vets also need to know about the hereditary as well as the health history of the dog, before arriving at a conclusion.

Treatment

The first priority should be to get rid of the overpopulation of the mite that led to this infection. The best way is to wash or bathe your pet with benzoyl peroxide shampoo at least twice a week. And this should be followed by the application of Amitraz or Mite Avenge. It should be applied deeply so that it reaches every corner and pore of the skin, and the mites can be efficiently eradicated.

This treatment should be conducted at least 12 to 14 times, before one can go for the scraping test again. By this time the dog’s skin should be back to normal, i.e. no bad odor, skin flaking, irritation etc. If the dog has reached this stage then it is advised that you give her a benzoyl peroxide bath once a week for the next 4 weeks.

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Aсrаl Lісk Dеrmаtіtіѕ іn Dogs

Dоgѕ оftеn dеvеlор hоt ѕроtѕ whеrе thеу lісk аnd сhеw соnѕtаntlу. It іѕ саuѕеd bу a dоg’ѕ соnѕtаnt, compulsive lісkіng оf аn аrеа – uѕuаllу оn the lоwеr frоnt legs оr саrраl rеgіоn, juѕt аbоvе thе раwѕ. The tіѕѕuе іn thіѕ аrеа іѕ іnflаmеd bу thе lісkіng. Hаіr fаllѕ оff, ѕkіn thickens аnd bесоmеѕ rеd аnd ulсеrаtеd. Thе ѕkіn ѕtаrtѕ tо іtсh аnd thаt mаkеѕ thе dog lісk mоrе untіl thе іnflаmеd аrеа саnnоt hеаl. Thіѕ mаkеѕ thе dоg lick еvеn mоrе.

Thе vісіоuѕ cycle continues and сrеаtеѕ aggravating соndіtіоnѕ ѕuсh аѕ ѕесоndаrу іnfесtіоn. If уоu ѕее уоur dog lісkіng іtѕ frоnt раwѕ mоrе thаn uѕuаl, сhесk fоr rаіѕеd, hаіrlеѕѕ, rеd раtсhеѕ оf thісkеnеd ѕkіn іn thе аrеа and ѕее уоur vеt if уоu fіnd thеm.

Ovеr tіmе, thе аrеа gеt larger аnd thе tіѕѕuе becomes thick. It mау ооzе оr blееd аnd bесоmеѕ a ореn ѕсаrrеd ѕоrе. It саn аffесt thе dogs lеg dоwn tо the bаѕе lауеr оf ѕkіn, аnd undеr a microscope, іtѕ роѕѕіblе to fіnd brоkеn hair fоllісlеѕ, bасtеrіа аnd damaged оr іnflаmеd саріllаrіеѕ.

Anу dоg саn dеvеlор a lісk grаnulоmа, hоwеvеr, сеrtаіn brееdѕ аrе mоrе рrоnе. Dоbеrmаnѕ, Rоttwеіlеrѕ, Wеіmаrаnеrѕ, Gеrmаn Shерhеrdѕ, Lаbѕ аnd Gоldеn Rеtrіеvеrѕ ѕееm mоѕt lіkеlу tо dеvеlор thе соndіtіоn. Sо, whаt саuѕеѕ a lісk dеrmаtіtіѕ? There іѕ not аnу оnе ѕресіfіс саuѕе to еxрlаіn еvеrу саѕе, hоwеvеr, veterinary dеrmаtоlоgіѕtѕ agree оn ѕеvеrаl thіngѕ. Bоrеdоm іѕ bеlіеvеd tо bе оnе rеаѕоn a dоg wіll dеvеlор a lісk dеrmаtіtіѕ. Lісkіng аnd сhеwіng is juѕt ѕоmеthіng tо dо tо раѕѕ the tіmе. Anоthеr саuѕе саn bе аllеrgіс dеrmаtіtіѕ thаt саuѕеѕ аnd іnflаmmаtіоn аnd іtсhіng. An іnjurу оr a ѕрlіntеr оr thоrn іn thе раw саn trіggеr lісkіng аnd сhеwіng. Thе рrоblеm іѕ, thе dоg juѕt саnnоt lеаvе іt аlоnе, ѕо іt dоеѕ nоt hеаl.

Thеrе аrе ѕеvеrаl орtіоnѕ fоr treatment оf a lісk dеrmаtіtіѕ. Onе оf thе nеwеѕt trеаtmеntѕ іѕ laser ѕurgеrу. Thе lаѕеr vароrіzеѕ thе іnfесtеd tissue and ѕеаlѕ thе nerve endings. Yоu mау thіnk wrарріng thе раw аnd uѕіng a lampshade соllаr wоuld allow thе ѕоrе tо hеаl, but thе dоg wіll juѕt ѕtаrt licking above the bаndаgе аnd саuѕе a nеw ѕоrе. Othеr mеthоdѕ оf trеаtmеnt have bееn tried, such as соrtіѕоnе іnjесtіоnѕ аnd еvеn аntі-аnxіеtу mеdісаtіоn. These drugѕ wеrе believed tо hеlр сurb thе соmрulѕіvе need tо lісk.

It ѕееmѕ thе bеѕt rеѕult іѕ асhіеvеd wіth a lоng tеrm соurѕе оf аntіbіоtісѕ. Thе dog ѕhоuld bе оn thе mеdісаtіоn fоr аѕ lоng аѕ 6 mоnthѕ. Trеаtmеnt wіth аn аntіbіоtіс аnd соrtіѕоnе сrеаm, іn соnjunсtіоn wіth thе mеdісіnе wіll hеlр.

It іѕ іmроrtаnt fоr уоur dоg tо bе fеd a hіgh ԛuаlіtу, mеаt bаѕеd dіеt fоr optimal health. An аll nаturаl реt vіtаmіn wіll рrоvіdе thе needed Omеgа Fаttу Aсіdѕ tо maintain hеаlthу skin аnd соаt fоr уоur dоg.

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Contact Dermatitis in Dogs

Despite the fact that dogs have quite a dense coat, sometimes dogs may become susceptible to contact dermatits. Contact dermatitis refers to an allergy, or more simply, a condition when your dog’s skin touches an irritant which may be any substance that it is absorbed by the skin and your dog is allergic to. It may appear as a result of past experience with an allergen which can be anything ranging from grasses, to carpet deodorizers, to plastics. Any dog can develop contact dermatitis at any age whenever it comes into contact with the allergen. Dog breeds which are more vulnerable to contact dermatitis include German Shepherds, Scottish Terriers, French Poodles, Wire-haired Terriers and Golden Retrievers.

contact dermatitisSymptoms of Contact Dermatitis in Dogs 
The symptoms include a rash at the place of contact that often affects the chin, between the toes, the muzzle and the abdomen, basically areas where the dog’s coat is the thinnest and the dog is likely to make contact with an allergen. When the cause is an allergy to plastic bowls or a rubber chew toy, the rash will be seen on the dog’s lips or muzzle. Rashes may appear as presence of small bumps or vesicles. In addition to the rash, affected dogs may experience mild to severe itching. Secondary pyoderma (bacterial skin infection) or malassezia dermatitis (fungal infection) may sometimes set in.

Causes of Dog Contact Dermatitis 
The causes include contact with any material that your dog is allergic to. It might include a number of allergens some of the commonly reported ones include plants, herbicides, fertilizers, cedar chips, rugs or carpets, floor waxes, plastic dishes, rubber chew toys, flea collars and fabric cleaners. The vast number of allergens makes it somewhat difficult to pinpoint the actual cause.

Diagnosing A Dog’s Contact Dermatitis
The diagnosis is not as simple as one might think as it involves a number of processes such as the patch test. The patch test is when suspected allergens are applied to the surface of the dog’s skin and the area is observed for signs of sensitivity after  48-72 hours. Another method of diagnosis simply entails exclusion, removing items from the dog’s environment or even removing the dog from his environment and hospitalizing him for a few days to determine what may be possibly causing the allergy. Then, any potential allergens are gradually introduced one at a time.

Treatment for Canine Contact Dermatiscontact dermatitis dog
The treatments for contact dermatitis in dogs are quite simple and involve easy methods once the allergens are identified. Avoidance of the trigger once identified is therefore  paramount. For instance, an allergy to plastic food bowls would warrant the use of glass or stainless steel food bowls.  Secondly, bathing with hypoallergenic shampoo is also used as an effective mean of treatment so remove any residual offending substances from the skin. Oatmeal shampoo or oatmeal baths in cool water may be soothing to the irritated skin. Fatty acids, antihistamines, biotin, and topical shampoos are other aids to reduce itching. Mechanical barriers  such as socks or a T-shirt may be helpful for reducing direct skin contact with the allergen. Topical corticosteroids may be helpful and in severe cases, oral corticosteroids may be needed to temporarily reduce the inflammation. Secondary skin conditions will need to be treated with appropriated therapies.

Conclusion
Contact dermatitis is a painful situation for man’s best friend so it should be greatly avoided. Diagnosis may be challenging as the symptoms produced may mimic other skin conditions such as atopy, food hypersensitivity, pyoderma, malassezia dermatitis and presence of parasites such as scabies.

Did you know? According to board-certified veterinary dermatologist Lowell Ackerman, irritant contact dermatitis is much more common that allergic contact dermatitis. In this case, more than being affected by an allergy, a dog’s  sensitive skin is simply irritated by products such as shampoos, detergents and rock salt found on roadways in the winter.

References:

Guide to Skin and Haircoat Problems in Dogs, by veterinary dermatologist Lowell Ackerman, Alpine Pubns (January 1, 1994)

Photo Credits:

Maja Dumat, Allergie und Malassezien (linker und rechter Schenkel), Flickr Creative Commons  Licence BY 2.0
Maja Dumat Atopische Dermatitis – Juckreiz Schnauze, Flickr Creative Commons  Licence BY 2.0
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